Preventive conservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change is a serious matter for heritage professionals, especially for countries with a large patrimony or at risk. The MUSEION project propose an IoT platform for monitoring of the museum environment and tackle these challenges.
The project will build on the earlier work carried out by BEIA, SEACON and SAMPAS that focused on technologies for monitoring of environmental parameters, data storage, data processing and development of specific algorithms for data extrapolation and inference, data vizualisation, as well as on research performed by INCTDP-ICPI through its ARCH Lab on mechanisms governing the environment-related deterioration processes of heritage materials and risk assessment of air pollution impacts on CH assets.
Phases and activities
Stage 1. Usage scenarios and functional requirements of the MUSEION system
10/08/2021 – 30/12/2021
Activity 1.1 – Assessment of risks due to adverse effects of climatic conditions and air quality – in which contributions were made regarding the part of risks regarding adverse effects of climatic conditions and air quality, analysis of the importance of the critical risk factor (KRI), which allows a proper monitoring of the conservation conditions in the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” Memorial House, but also a study on the influence of climate change on environmental factors.
Activity 1.2 – Market study – a market study was carried out regarding the set of IoT systems and platforms used in the field, which lead to a development of public-private partnerships to promote cultural heritage. The IoT approach to art conservation involves installing sensor nodes and Gateways to transfer data to the Cloud. The application of the IoT approach enables online monitoring and continuous surveillance of each work of art, given the access from the Cloud to the data recorded from electronic sensors, improving their safety and preventive conservation.
Activity 1.3 – Analysis and definition of requirements. The design of the system architecture, the monitored environmental parameters were analyzed, as well as an analysis of the conservation records to identify important parameters in the conservation activity. Depending on the materials used (textiles, metals) in the making of works of art, the factors vary, so that certain objects of art have different physical and chemical reactions to the parameters present in the atmosphere. Maintaining a welcoming environment for both visitors and artifacts can be a challenge, as cold temperatures favor the preservation of historic objects by slowing the process of deterioration.
Activity 1.4 – Mockups for various types of materials – detailed analysis of aging processes and identification of resin mixtures used to make varnishes. For these varnishes, mockups from textile materials from the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Millian” Memorial House were selected.
Activity 1.5 – Communication and dissemination of results – participation in conferences was presented, but also the creation of the project’s web page, as well as the Twitter page.
During stage I, 5 relevant activities were analyzed together with the Romanian partner, namely the I.C.P.I. Institute. A market study was carried out on the effects of climate change on the environment, but also on the negative risks of these climatic conditions, risks realized on the artefacts. The system architecture, the types of pollutants to be analysed in the project, as well as a market study on cultural heritage and existing IoT platforms were determined. Mockups were made for various organic materials, mockups that are important for heritage. Finally, the stage concluded with the dissemination activity in which the Twitter page of the project, the Internet page of the project, but also the participation in conferences of both parties involved in the project were presented.
Project page: http://www.beiaro.eu/museion/
Participation in conferences:
- Smart Cities International Conference (SCIC) – Preceding of the Smart Cities International Conference, edition 9 – the article Artifacts conservation using an IoT system was published. Cristina BALACEANU, Roxana ROȘCĂNEANU, Robert-Alexandru STRECHE, Filip-Emanuel OSIAC, George SUCIU, page 457
1.2 Dissemination of I.C.P.I. results.
Participation in national conferences – oral presentations
- Dumitrita Filip, Elena Badea, Cristina Carsote, Emanuel Hadambu, Iulia Caniola, Simona Paunescu, Revealing The History Of The Objects, A Synergy Between Restoration And Chemistry, 4th Museikon Restoration Workshop – Approaches and challenges in the restoration of Russian icons, Workshops of Museikon restoration, 4th edition, Approaches and challenges in the restoration of Russian icons, 29 – 30 September 2021, National Museum of the Union, Alba Iulia
- Elena Badea, Cristina Carșote, Lucretia Miu, Claudiu Șendrea – The contribution of the study of materials to the identification of the manufacturing methods of ancient objects, “Doina Darvaș” Conservation – Restoration Conference, XVth Edition, November 4-5, 2021
- Emanuel Hadîmbu, Maria-Simona Păunescu, Maria-Cristina Micu, Maria-Iulia Caniola, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea – Innovative materials for the consolidation of historical and archaeological leather objects, “Doina Darvaș” Conservation – Restoration Conference, XV Edition -a, November 4-5, 2021
Stage II. Development of the MUSEION system
01/01/2022 – 31/12/2022
Activity 2.1 – Development of the specific components of the MUSEION system. Within this activity, the specific components of the MUSEION system for the acquisition, storage and primary processing of data were presented, which ultimately led to the project architecture. Within the MUSEION system, the part of communication protocols, data transmission, monitored parameters were described and analyzed.
Activity 2.2 – Construction of the network of statistical sensors for air quality monitoring. As part of this activity, the construction of static sensor networks for air quality monitoring was implemented. The main sensor networks used as well as their characteristics were analyzed and described. Also within this activity, the location of the pilot where the monitoring process will be carried out along with the objects in the premises was presented.
Activity 2.3 – Creation of risk profiles for each type of material from the “Liviu and Fanny Liviu Rebreanu” Memorial House location, the aim is to evaluate the materials in situ and create risk profiles. Objects from document collections, graphics, oil painting, icons on glass, icons on wood, textiles and ceramics were identified and classified according to their sensitivity to the environmental conditions in the museum and the related risk.
Activity 2.4 Development of the specific algorithm for the calculation of the IAQ index, in this activity the algorithm for the calculation of the IAQ is developed, an algorithm in which the agents that dominate the deterioration rate of the materials, and critical risk indicators as well as the sensitivity of the materials to environmental conditions were analyzed from the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” memorial house.
Activity 2.5 Artificial aging treatments of the mockups – in this stage artificial aging treatments are carried out. The selected materials were subjected to successive cycles of accelerated aging, using specific equipment.
Activity 2.6 Widespread dissemination through national/international communication/publication of the results – the results are disseminated through scientific communications.
During stage II, 6 relevant activities were analyzed. These activities were carried out together with the Romanian partner, namely the ICPI. The specific components of the MUSEION system for the acquisition, storage and primary processing of data were presented, which ultimately led to the project’s architecture. The description of the MUSEION system was also detailed along with the part of the communication protocols and the parameters that are monitored and the way of transmitting the measured data to the visualization process. The sensor networks used as well as their characteristics were presented. An important aspect was the identification of objects from collections of documents, graphics, oil painting, icons on glass, icons on wood, textiles and ceramics. These objects have been classified according to their sensitivity to the environmental conditions in the museum and the related risk. The development and verification of the algorithm for calculating the IAQ index contributed to the determination of the 12 critical risk indicators as well as the sensitivity of the materials to the environmental conditions in the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” memorial house. The subject of artificial aging treatments by performing accelerated aging tests has been described in detail. Finally, the dissemination part was addressed through participation in conferences and publications.
Stage III. Testing and validation of the MUSEION platform under real operating conditions
01/01/2023 – 31/12/2023
Activity 3.1 – Development of system test scenarios in environments similar to real conditions – in the MUSEION project was successfully carried out in the test area of BEIA Consult International. This area located in the centre of Bucharest was strategically selected in the Vlăsiei Plain region to reflect a varied spectrum of geographical conditions. Using the Smart Environment Pro station and a wide range of calibrated sensors, meticulous testing was carried out to assess the accuracy, sensitivity and consistency of the system under different scenarios. Results obtained in the laboratory provided a clear insight into the station’s performance, including stability testing, pollutant exposure and simultaneous parameter operation. Through these tests, a comprehensive understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the system was obtained, thus contributing to the development and refinement of innovative technologies within the MUSEION project.
Activity 3.2 – Implementation of the IAQ index calculation algorithm for the ENDUSER case study. The IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) Index has been defined as an essential measure of the air condition of an indoor space, having a direct impact on the health and comfort of users. Using the IAQ algorithm, the data collected was processed and analysed to provide IAQ scores corresponding to risk categories. These scores reflect the air quality according to the environmental factors assessed, and the results were displayed in the MUSEION solution management interface as graphs and tables.
Activity 3.3 – Testing, evaluation and validation of the functioning of the MUSEION system under real operating conditions, was a significant step in validating and evaluating the efficiency of the system under real operating conditions. The memorial house of the poet Ion Minulescu served as an authentic environment for testing MUSEION solutions. The location of the two monitoring stations, both inside and outside the museum, allowed for continuous data collection over a whole year. The results obtained reflected both the overall functioning of the system, from collection to presentation, and the detailed evaluation of the measured parameters. The Grafana visualisation platform contributed to the data analysis, providing a clear insight into the behaviour of the system under various conditions. The results validated the efficiency and robustness of the MUSEION solutions, demonstrating that the system is able to manage the variability of the environment and respond to the real challenges of daily use.
Activity 3.4 – Mock-ups catalogue , in this activity the algorithm for the calculation of the IAQ is developed, an algorithm in which the agents that dominate the deterioration rate of the materials, and critical risk indicators as well as the sensitivity of the materials to environmental conditions were analyzed from the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” memorial house.
Activity 2.5 Artificial aging treatments of the mockups – In the mock-up catalogue, this work revealed that exposure to light radiation influenced the molecular composition of the mock-ups, made with photosensitive oils and pigments, simulating ageing by exposure to UVc light. FTIR-ATR analysis identified significant changes in the absorption bands of linseed oil and pigments, suggesting their deterioration. The results make important contributions to the understanding of degradation processes associated with the effects of light radiation.
Activity 3.5 – Wide dissemination through national/international communication/publication of results – the results are disseminated through scientific communications.
Phase 3 of the MUSEION project represented a comprehensive and innovative approach to testing and validating the MUSEION platform under real operating conditions. Activity 3.1 consisted of developing realistic test scenarios, carried out in a representative test environment, to evaluate and refine the performance of the system. Using the Smart Environment Pro station and various sensors, rigorous tests were performed to analyse the system behaviour under various situations and conditions. Activity 3.2 of the project focused on the implementation of the IAQ index calculation algorithm, providing a sophisticated solution for indoor environment assessment. The definition of the IAQ index and the use of the algorithm to process the collected data enabled the provision of relevant IAQ scores, which were visualized in an accessible and easy to interpret form within the MUSEION platform. As regards activity 3.3, the testing, evaluation and validation of the MUSEION system under real operating conditions confirmed the efficiency and robustness of the developed solutions. By placing the monitoring stations in an authentic environment, such as the memorial house of the poet Ion Minulescu, real and detailed data on the functioning of the system in various situations were obtained. The results validated the capabilities of the system to respond to the challenges of the real environment and to provide useful information for air quality management. The MUSEION project has therefore successfully integrated these three complementary activities, strengthening the development and implementation of the system for monitoring and improving air quality in both indoor and outdoor spaces. The results obtained in these phases provide a solid basis for the future development and expansion of environmental monitoring solutions in museums.
Dissemination of results through joint articles
- Presentation of the MUSEION project at the international professional conference: CSTI (Conservation Science, Technology and Industry) 2023 in Bratislava Castle, organized by the Slovak National Museum and the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava from 21.03.2023. to 23.03.2023. The project was represented at the event by Elena Badea, founder and coordinator of INCDTP-ICPI ARCH Lab, who is the professional implementation manager. In her presentation, she talked about the threats to the exhibits, their management, the related objectives of the project and presented the concept of the completed solution and the results achieved so far in relation to the selected pilot location. Elena Badea (The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest), Cristina Carsote, Cristina Balaceanu, Oana Orza, Sabina Bosoc, Robert Streche, George Suciu, Zóra Barta, Valéria Tálai, Zsolt Viniczay: Understanding and Controlling the Environmental Quality in Museums through Conservation Science and IoT. The Results of MUSEION Eureka Project E!13370
- Written Heritage: New Challenges and Perspectives, Krems, 2023, Online Conference of the European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation and Restoration in cooperation with Conservators without Borders. The conference will take place on 2 and 3 November 2023, 100% online. Continuous real-time monitoring and analysis of indoor environmental quality in historic houses through the MUSEION platform developed within the Eureka E!13370 project, Elena Badea, Cristina Carsote, Cristina Bălăceanu, Oana Orza, Sabina Bosoc, Robert Streche, George Suciu, Zóra Barta, Valéria Tálai, Zsolt Viniczay
- D. Filip, C. Carsote, Zizi Balta, E. Badea, Study of old varnish recipes used by Transylvanian icon painters. Case study: reproduction and characterization of varnishes used in 18th and early 19th century icons from the Museikon collection. Apulum Magazine, 60, p.21 (2023). https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=1197798
- Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carsote, Zizi Ileana Baltă, Paul Scrobotă, Elena Badea, Local sources of raw materials in the colour palette of Transylvanian icon painters. Reproduction of locally sourced coloured earth pigments, Terra Sebus. Acta Musei Sabesiensis, 15, 2023, ISSN: 2066-9143
- Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carșote, Zizi Ileana Baltă, Paul Scrobotă, Elena Badea, Materials and painting technique of icons on wood from Transylvania in the 18th century, in Catalogue of the exhibition Materie și icoană, Ed. D.D. Filip, Mega Publishing House, Cluj Napoca, ISBN 978-630-6548-08-8, p. 19-96
- Balta Zizi Ileana, Carșote Cristina, Popa Maria, Elena Badea, The hidden secrets of an ancient icon revealed by multi-analytical methods of analysis, Journal of Restoration, Conservation and Investment of the National Museum of Romanian History, edition 2023, forthcoming.
Project page: http://www.beiaro.eu/museion/
Dissemination of results through joint scientific communications in international conferences
- S. Bosoc, F. M. Enescu, O. Orza, E. Hanganu, C. M. Balaceanu and G. Suciu, “IoT system using Blockchain in the conservation and promotion of Cultural Heritage,” 2022 14th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI ), 2022, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ECAI54874.2022.9847411.
Joint-article publication in SCOPUS indexed proceedings
- Elena Badea, Cristina Carsote, Cristina Mihaela Balaceanu, Oana Orza, Sabina Bosoc, Robert Streche, Zóra Barta, Valéria Tálai, Zsolt Viniczay, Understanding and Controlling the Environmental Quality in Museums through IoT: An International Research and Practice Collaboration to Support Museums in the Implementation of Climate Action – 9th edition of the conference entitled International Conference on Advanced Materials and Systems, 26 – 28 October 2022, DOI: 10.24264/icams-2022.W.1
- Organization of the MUSEION Workshop, An IoT-based system for understanding and controlling the environmental quality in museums: an INTERNATIONAL Implementation as interaction of RESEARCH, PRACTICE, AND CURRENT EUROPEAN GREEN DEAL, online event, on October 26, within the conference international ICAMS 2022 (The final program can be viewed on the web page: https://www.icams.ro/icams/)
Dissemination of results through common articles
Participation in national conferences
- Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea, Study on the aging behavior of varnish, Museikon restoration workshops with the theme “Varnishes”, 5th edition, 5 October 2022, Alba Iulia
- Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea, Pigments specific to Transylvanian icons painted in the 18th-19th centuries, Annual Scientific Session Dedicated to the National Day of Romania “Unity, Continuity and Independence in the History of the Romanian People”, 24-25 November 2022, National Museum of the Alba Iulia Union.
Participation in international conferences
- Badea, C. Carsote, E. Hadimbu, C. Benvestito, J. Kodrič, Restoring a restored manuscript: old challenges and new approaches. The Case of St. Mark’s Books, 6th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy
- Badea, C. Carșote, D. D. Filip, E.l Hadimbu, I. M. Caniola, S. M. Păunescu, The Russian Icons’ Collection of Museikon: A Study of Materials and Techniques for Understanding the Process of Transfer and Reception of Russian Religious Art in Transylvania, 6th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy
- Cristina Carsote, Elena Badea, Maria Iulia Caniola, Emanuel Hadîmbu, Simona Maria Paunescu, Noemi Proietti, Valeria Di Tullio, Zoltán Sebestyén, Zsuzsanna Czégény, Leather and Parchment Preservation – The Power Behind Coupling of Analytical Methods and Data Fusion, al 6- 10th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy
- The project partner NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE FOR TEXTILE AND LEATHER – RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR LEATHER AND FOOTWEAR (INCDTP-ICPI), had the opportunity to present the challenges and results of our Museion project as a speaker in CSTI (Conservation Science, Technology and Industry) 2023 scientific conference in Bratislava Castle between 21.03.2023. and 23.03.2023. The theme of the year is the interdisciplinary research and protection of cultural heritage.
See the presentation here.
„This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digitization, CNCS/CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P3-3.5-EUK-2019-0211, within PNCDI III”.